BBY | PSII-enriched membranes

975 €

AS16 3979  | BBY | PSII-enriched membranes


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Item No:
AS16 3979

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product information
Chloroplasts are organells surrounded by double membranes: outer and inner envelopes. The inner envelope extends into the light of chloroplast (stroma) where it forms an interior membrane system called thylakoids. These membranes are organized into grana stacks, with inner spaces called lumen, which are interconnected with one another via lamellae. Curved regions at the external parts of grana are called grana margins, whereas the top and bottom parts are called grana ends.

Arabidopsis chloroplast structure

TEM micrographs of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast's ultrastructure (A) and thylakoid membrane magnification (B). Legend: 1 - cell wall, 2 - grana stacks, 3 - starch granules, 4 - stroma lamellae, 5 - stroma, 6 - plastoglobules, 7- outer and inner envelopes, 8 - tonoplast, 9 - vacuole, 10 - cytoplasm.

The light reactions of photosynthesis are further divided into different regions of thylakoids, what is determined by the 3-D structure of different protein complexes. Photosystem II (PSII) with its light harvesting complex II (LHCII) are mainly found in tightly packed grana stacks, while photosystem I (PSI) with its light harvesting complex I (LHCI), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH), proton gradient regulation 5 (PGR5)/PGR5-like photosynthetic phenotype 1 (PGRL1) heterodimer, and ATP synthase (ATPase) are found in stroma-exposed lamellae. Cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f) on the other hand is distributed evenly across the membranes. Grana margins and ends are the only regions where all of major photosynthetic complexes can be found.

This spatial separation of PSII from PSI prevents the energy spillover to much faster PSI. It increases the efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting by PSII and its antennae, enabling fine-tuning between the linear and cyclic electron flows. Furthermore, it protects PSII from photodamage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by PSI.
Purity Isolated BBY membranes from Spinacia oleracea.
Quantity 100 mg (in proteins) (5 ml at C=2.99 mg/ml of chlorophyll a+b)
Store at -80°C. To thaw BBY sample place it in darkness on ice and let it reach 4°C. Once thawn make aliquots of appropriate to your application volume to avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles and subsequent protein degradation.
Tested applications Sucrose gradient, Blue Native (BN), 77K chlorophyll fluorescence, absorption spectrum
Related products Antibodies to other proteins involved in photosynthesis
Additional information
Sample handling should be adjusted according to application. BBY membranes are light sensitive therefore we suggest to handle them in darkness with a weak green light, which is not absorbed by the membranes due to the chlorophyll absorption spectrum. If possible always work in a cold room and/or keep the sample on ice.
application information
Recommended dilution
Expected | apparent MW
Confirmed reactivity
Predicted reactivity
Not reactive in
Additional information
Selected references

Application example
BBY absorption spectrum

5 μl of BBY membranes were mixed with 995 μl of 80% acetone and then centrifuged for 10 min at 14,000 xg to precipitate the proteins. Supernatant was transferred to a quartz cuvette and chlorophyll fluorescence was measured at different wavelengts.

BBY membranes separated on sucrose gradient
PSII membranes were solubilized with 0.6% α-DM and separated on sucrose gradient.