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In biology there is no universal controls. One has to determine a priori what does NOT change in one's test conditions and use that as a control. The choice of appropriate housekeeping protein would depend upon the particular experiment and it needs to be confirmed. Other possible internal controls:

-total protein (express fmol target protein/ug total protein)
-dry mass 
-total chlorophyll (express fmol target protein/ug chlorophyll)
-cells (express fmol target protein/cell)
-total nitrogen (express fmol target protein/fmol N)
-experiment specific ratios of particular proteins (ex. fmol PsbA/fmol RbcL)          
For short term experiments Rubico protein makes a good loading control as its turnover is slow. However, Rubisco level do vary with nutrient levels, particularly nitrogen.

Below you will find proposed antibodies to use as a loading control.

Special notes:

RbcL or RA (Rubisco activase) OEC223AtpB (for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rasala et al. 2013) or PsbO (OEE1) or PsbP (OEE2) for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

PsbO (OEE1) or PsbP (OEE2) are not so suitable for higher plants as accumulation of these proteins might drop to 12.5-25 % of the WT level in mutants defective for PSII core (Schult et al. 2007). 

FtsZ (AS07 217) can be used as a loading control in cyanobacteria.

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265 €
Buy 2 items of this product for 198 €/each
Buy 3 items of this product for 180 €/each

AS13 2640   | clonality:polyclonal |  host:rabbit  |  reactivity: A. thaliana, Glycine max, H. vulgare, S. lycopersicum, S. tuberosum, Z. mays

265 €
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AS10 702 | Clonality: Monoclonal | Host: Mouse | Reactivity: A. thaliana, N. cataria, N. rtanjensis, N. tabacum, O. sativa, S. tuberosum, Z. mays
345 €

AS03 030  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Chicken  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant and bacterial F-type ATP synthases

265 €
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AS05 085  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant, green alga, animal and bacterial F-type ATP synthases

AS16 3976  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

Interested to test this antibody? Please contact us.

350 €

AS07 217  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Cyanobacteria

396 €

AS10 710-100 | clonality: polyclonal | host: rabbit | reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

406 €

AS10 710-ALP | clonality: polyclonal | host: rabbit | reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

406 €

AS10 710-HRP | clonality: polyclonal | host: rabbit | reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

265 €
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AS10 710A | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

265 €
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AS15 2855 | clonality: polyclonal | host: chicken | reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, L. esculentum | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

265 €
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AS10 710 | clonality: polyclonal | host: rabbit | reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

265 €
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AS06 142-33  |  clonality: polyclonal  |  host: rabbit  |  reactivity: A.thaliana , F. arundinacea, H. pluvialis, H.vulgare, S. oleracea, S. tuberosum, P. abies, P. banksiana , C.reinhardtii, Chlorella sp. DT, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942

345 €

AS06 142-23  |  clonality: polyclonal  |  host: rabbit  |  reactivity: A. thaliana , P. banksiana. , S.oleracea, Ch. reinhardtii

345 €

AS08 305  |  clonality: polyclonal  |  host: rabbit  |  reactivity: A. thaliana, S. bicolor, Z. mays

265 €
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AS10 700  | clonality: polyclonal  |  host: rabbit  |  reactivity: A. thaliana, C. sativa, C. reinhardtii, F. pratensis, G. max, G. hirsutum, L. perenne, N. tabacum, O. sativa, P. balsamifera, R. discolor, S. lycopersicum, Thiodictyon sp., T. salsuginea, Z.mays

258 €
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AS03 037 |  clonality: polyclonal  |  host: rabbit  |  reactivity: [global antibody] for higher plants, lichens, algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, diatoms  |  cellular [compartment marker] of plastid stroma in higher plants and cytoplasm in cyanobacteria

345 €

AS01 017  clonality: polyclonal  |  host: hen  |  reactivity: [global antibody] for higher plants, algae, cyanobacteria  |  cellular [compartment marker] of plastid stroma

265 €
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AS15 2832A  |  Clonality: polyclonal  |  Host: rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

AS15 2845  |  Clonality: polyclonal  |  Host: rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

Interested to test this antibody? Please contact us.


265 €
Buy 2 items of this product for 198 €/each
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AS10 680  |  clonality: polyclonal  |  host: rabbit  |  reactivity:Arabidopsis thaliana, Horderum vulgare, Zea mays

371 €

AS10 681 | clonality: polyclonal | host: rabbit | reactivity:Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago sativa