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Antibody Production

Over the last 30 years, Agrisera has produced thousands of custom monoclonal and custom polyclonal antibodies for academic research worldwide as well as industry, diagnostics, and pharma. With our own animal facilities and in-house immunological services, we can offer antibody production for almost any research area and scale needed. A list of chosen scientific references for antibodies produced at Agrisera can be found here.

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies

Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be used in a variety of different applications, including Western blot, ELISA, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages which should be considered when choosing your antibody.

Polyclonal antibodies are typically produced in rabbit, goat, hen or rat after activation of multiple B-cell clones. The polyclonal immune serum therefore contains a pool of antibodies with different chemical and physical properties, that recognize multiple epitopes of the immunized antigen.

Advantages of polyclonal antibodies:

  • As the antibodies bind to different epitopes on a protein, a protein expressed in low levels can be easier to detect as the signal will be amplified
  • The antibodies are more tolerant to small changes in the nature of the antigen, like polymerization or slight denaturation

General considerations regarding polyclonal antibodies:

  • Preferred when the nature of the protein is unknown
  • Preferred choice for detection of denatured proteins
  • Batch-to-batch variability between different animals
  • Recognize proteins with high homology. To ensure specificity, the antigen sequence should be checked for significant cross-reactivity
  • The immune response in animals, immunized with the same antigen, will be individually varying. Therefore, the general recommendations for polyclonal antibody production is to immunize at least two animals per antigen

Monoclonal antibodies are typically produced from a single B-cell of immunized BalbC mice. By fusion of a B-cell and myeloma cell, a hybridoma cell line is formed, that produces antibodies recognizing a single epitope with low cross-reactivity.

Advantages of monoclonal antibodies:

  • Typically low cross-reactivity
  • Facilitates standardization in the manufacturing process, regarding e.g. diagnostics kits and clinical treatment

General considerations regarding monoclonal antibodies:

  • Can produce unlimited amount of specific antibodies
  • High homogeneity
  • Preferred for detecting proteins in tissue
  • Preferred in assays requiring quantification
  • May be too specific and thus lose ability to recognize the target in case of small changes in the antigen