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In biology there are no universal controls. One has to determine a priori what does not change in one's test conditions and use that as a control. The choice of appropriate house-keeping protein would depend upon the particular experiment and it needs to be confirmed. House-keeping proteins cannot be used for normalization if there is a suspcion that experimental conditions are affecting their expression. 

Other possible internal controls:
- total protein (express fmol target protein/ug total protein)
- dry mass
- total chlorophyll (express fmol target protein/ug chlorophyll)
-cells (express fmol target protein/cell)
-total nitrogen (express fmol target protein/fmol N)
-experiment specific ratios of particular proteins (ex. fmol PsbA/fmol RbcL)          

For short term experiments Rubico protein makes a good loading control as its turnover is slow. However, Rubisco level do vary with nutrient levels, particularly nitrogen.

Special notes:
FtsZ (AS07 217) can be used as a loading control in cyanobacteria. 
GAPC1/2 use of this protein as a loading control should be supported with specific experimental data. 
RbcL or RA (Rubisco activase) OEC223AtpB (for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rasala et al. 2013) or PsbO (OEE1) or PsbP (OEE2) for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  
PsbO (OEE1) or PsbP (OEE2) are not so suitable for higher plants as accumulation of these proteins might drop to 12.5-25 % of the WT level in mutants defective for PSII core (Schult et al. 2007). 


Below you will find proposed antibodies to use as a loading control.

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272 €
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Buy 3 items of this product for 185 €/items

AS13 2640 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. stolonifera cv. ‘Penncross’,  A. thaliana, C. sativus, G. max, H. vulgare, N. tabacum, S. lycopersicum, S. tuberosum, Z. mays

272 €
Buy 2 items of this product for 202 €/items
Buy 3 items of this product for 185 €/items
AS10 702 | Clonality: Monoclonal | Host: Mouse | Reactivity: A. thaliana, N. cataria, N. rtanjensis, N. tabacum, O. sativa, S. tuberosum, Z. mays
355 €

AS03 030  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Chicken  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant and bacterial F-type ATP synthases

272 €
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Buy 3 items of this product for 185 €/items

AS05 085  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant, green alga, animal and bacterial F-type ATP synthases

272 €
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AS16 3976  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis cv. ’Diadom

360 €

AS07 217  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Cyanobacteria

272 €
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AS15 2894 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

407 €

AS10 710-100 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

272 €
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AS10 710A | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

272 €
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AS15 2855 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Chicken | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, L. esculentum | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

272 €
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AS10 710 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

417 €

AS10 710-ALP | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

417 €

AS10 710-HRP | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

272 €
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AS06 142-33  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A.thaliana, C. reinhardtii, C. sp. DT, F. arundinacea cv. Kord, H. pluvialis, H. spontaneum, H. vulgare, N. benthamiana, P. abies, P. banksiana, S. oleracea, S. tuberosum cultivar Taedong Valley, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and PCC6803, T. salsuginea, T.aestivum

355 €

AS08 305  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. bicolor, Z. mays

355 €

AS06 142-23  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, Ch. reinhardtii, P. banksiana. , S.oleracea, T. aestivum

272 €
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AS10 700  | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. sativa, C. reinhardtii, H. spontaneum, F. pRatensis, G. max, G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, L. perenne, N. oceanica, N. tabacum, O. sativa, P. balsamifera, R. discolor, S. lycopersicum, Z. mays, T. salsuginea, red sulfur bacterium T. sp. Cad16 (isolated from Lake Cadagno)

265 €
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AS03 037 | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for higher plants, lichens, algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, diatoms  |  cellular [compartment marker] of plastid stroma in higher plants and cytoplasm in cyanobacteria

355 €

AS01 017  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Hen  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for higher plants, algae, cyanobacteria  |  cellular [compartment marker] of plastid stroma

272 €
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AS15 2832A  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

AS15 2845  |  Clonality: polyclonal  |  Host: rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

Interested to test this antibody? Please contact us.


272 €
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AS10 680  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardii, E. gracilis, H. vulgare, O. staiva, Zea mays

381 €

AS10 681 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity:Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago sativa