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Loading controls

In biology there are no universal controls. One has to determine a priori what does not change in one's test conditions and use that as a control. The choice of appropriate house-keeping protein would depend upon the particular experiment, and it needs to be confirmed. House-keeping proteins cannot be used for normalization if there is a suspicion that experimental conditions are affecting their expression.  

Loading control guide




Other possible internal controls:
• Total protein (express fmol target protein/µg total protein)
• Dry mass
• Total chlorophyll (express fmol target protein/µg chlorophyll)
• Cells (express fmol target protein/cell)
• Total nitrogen (express fmol target protein/fmol N)
• Experiment specific ratios of particular proteins (ex. fmol PsbA/fmol RbcL)          

For short term experiments, Rubisco protein makes a good loading control as its turnover is slow. However, Rubisco level do vary with nutrient levels, particularly nitrogen.

Special notes:
FtsZ (AS07 217) can be used as a loading control in cyanobacteria. 
GAPC1/2 use of this protein as a loading control should be supported with specific experimental data. 
RbcL or RA (Rubisco activase) OEC223AtpB (for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rasala et al. 2013) or PsbO (OEE1) or PsbP (OEE2) for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  
PsbO (OEE1) or PsbP (OEE2) are not so suitable for higher plants as accumulation of these proteins might drop to 12.5-25 % of the WT level in mutants defective for PSII core (Schult et al. 2007). 
Tubulin alpha and gamma cannot be applied as a loading control for metal stress conditions. For more information check here.

AS16 4111   | Clonality:  Monoclonal |  Host:  Mouse | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

Replaced by AS21 4615

AS21 4615   | Clonality:  Recombinant |  Host:  Mouse recombinant antibody | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

This product replaces AS16 4111

ACT | Actin (monoclonal)
368 €
Buy 2 items of this product for 218.00 €/items
Buy 3 items of this product for 198.00 €/items

AS13 2640 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: Agostis stoloniferacv. ‘Penncross’,Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica sp., Cannabis sativa L., Cucumis sativus, Cynara cardunculus, Glycine max, Hordeum vulgare, Nicotiana tabacum, Phoenix dactylifera, Setaria italica, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays

ACT | Actin (polyclonal)
292 €

AS16 4111S   |  Protein/positive control

ACT | Actin (protein)
123 €

AS03 030  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Chicken  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant and bacterial F-type ATP synthases

AtpB | Beta subunit of ATP synthase (chloroplastic + mitochondrial) (chicken antibodies)
381 €
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Buy 3 items of this product for 198.00 €/items

AS05 085  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant, green alga, animal and bacterial F-type ATP synthases

AtpB | Beta subunit of ATP synthase (chloroplastic + mitochondrial) (rabbit antibodies)
292 €
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AS16 3976  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis cv. ’Diadom’, [compartment marker] of mitochondrial inner membrane

AtpB | Beta subunit of ATP synthase, mitochondrial
292 €

AS07 217  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Cyanobacteria

FtsZ | Procaryotic cell division GTPase (cyanobacterial)
387 €
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AS15 2894 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

GAPC1/2 | Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
292 €
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AS10 710A | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

H3 | Histone H3 (affinity purified)
292 €
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AS15 2855 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Chicken | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, L. esculentum, T. aestivum | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

H3 | Histone H3 (chicken antibody)
292 €
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AS10 710 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, H. vulgare, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

H3 | Histone H3 (rabbit antibody) (nuclear marker)
292 €

AS10 710-ALP | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

H3 | Histone H3, ALP-conjugated (40 ĩg)
448 €

AS10 710-HRP | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

H3 | Histone H3, HRP-conjugated (40 ĩg)
448 €

AS06 142-33  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A.thaliana, C. reinhardtii, C. vulgaris, C. sp. DT, E. crus-galli, F. arundinacea cv. Kord, H. pluvialis, H. spontaneum, H. vulgare, N. benthamiana, P. abies, P. banksiana, P. sativum, P. miliaceum, S. oleracea, S. tuberosum cultivar Taedong Valley, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and PCC6803, T. salsuginea,
T.aestivum

compartment marker of thylakoid lumen

PsbO | 33 kDa of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of PSII (anti-protein)
292 €

AS08 305  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. bicolor, Z. mays

PsbP | 23 kDa protein of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of PSII (anti-monocot protein)
381 €

AS06 142-23  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, Ch. reinhardtii, P. banksiana. , S.oleracea, T. aestivum

PsbP | 23 kDa protein of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of PSII (anti-protein)
381 €
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AS10 700  | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. sativa, C. reinhardtii, H. spontaneum, F. pRatensis, G. max, G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, L. perenne, N. oceanica, N. tabacum, O. sativa, P. balsamifera, R. discolor, S. lycopersicum, Z. mays, T. salsuginea, red sulfur bacterium T. sp. Cad16 (isolated from Lake Cadagno)

RA | Rubisco activase
292 €

AS01 017  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Hen  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for higher plants, algae, cyanobacteria  |  cellular [compartment marker] of plastid stroma

RbcL | Rubisco large subunit, form I (chicken)
381 €
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AS03 037 | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for higher plants, lichens, algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, diatoms 

compartment marker  of chloroplast stroma in higher plants and cytoplasm in cyanobacteria

RbcL | Rubisco large subunit, form I (rabbit)
292 €
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Buy 3 items of this product for 198.00 €/items

AS15 2832A  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

RPN6 | 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 9
292 €
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AS10 680  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardii, E. gracilis, H. vulgare, O. sativa, Setaria italica, Zea mays

Tubulin alpha chain (polyclonal antibodies)
292 €
AS21 4624 | Clonality: Monoclonal | Host: Mouse | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Eisenia, Nicotiana tabacum, Paramecium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human, mouse, pig, turkey
Tubulin alpha chain, Biotin conjugated (clone TU-01)
240 €
AS21 4626 | Clonality: Monoclonal | Host: Mouse | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Eisenia, Nicotiana tabacum, Paramecium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human, mouse, pig, turkey
Tubulin alpha chain, FITC conjugated (clone TU-01)
220 €

AS10 681 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity:Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago sativa

Tubulin beta chain
332 €