Loading controls

In biology there are no universal controls. One has to determine a priori what does not change in one's test conditions and use that as a control. The choice of appropriate house-keeping protein would depend upon the particular experiment, and it needs to be confirmed. House-keeping proteins cannot be used for normalization if there is a suspicion that experimental conditions are affecting their expression.

Other possible internal controls

• Total protein (express fmol target protein/µg total protein)
• Dry mass
• Total chlorophyll (express fmol target protein/µg chlorophyll)
• Cells (express fmol target protein/cell)
• Total nitrogen (express fmol target protein/fmol N)
• Experiment specific ratios of particular proteins (ex. fmol PsbA/fmol RbcL)          

For short term experiments, Rubisco protein makes a good loading control as its turnover is slow. However, Rubisco level do vary with nutrient levels, particularly nitrogen.


Special notes

FtsZ can be used as a loading control in cyanobacteria. 
The use of GAPC1/2 as a loading control should be supported with specific experimental data. 
RbcL or RA (Rubisco activase) OEC223AtpB (for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rasala et al. 2013) or PsbO (OEE1) or PsbP (OEE2) for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  
PsbO (OEE1) or PsbP (OEE2) are not so suitable for higher plants as accumulation of these proteins might drop to 12.5-25 % of the WT level in mutants defective for PSII core (Schult et al. 2007). 
Tubulin alpha and gamma cannot be applied as a loading control for metal stress conditions. For more information check here.


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 Agrisera loading control antibodies

Loading control guide

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AS13 2640 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: Agostis stoloniferacv. ‘Penncross’,Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica sp., Cannabis sativa L., Cucumis sativus, Cynara cardunculus, Glycine max, Hordeum vulgare, Nicotiana tabacum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Phoenix dactylifera, Picrorhiza kurroa, Setaria italica, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays

319 €
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AS16 4111S   |  Protein/positive control

134 €
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AS21 4615   | Clonality: Monoclonal |  Host:  Mouse recombinant antibody (animal-free technology) | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Eschscholzia californica, Medicago sativa, Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum, Salvia plebeian, Zea mays

This product replaces AS16 4111

350 €
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AS03 030  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Chicken  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant and bacterial F-type ATP synthases

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416 €
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AS05 085  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant, green alga, animal and bacterial F-type ATP synthases

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319 €
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AS16 3976  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis cv. ’Diadom, [compartment marker] of mitochondrial inner membrane

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319 €
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AS07 217  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Cyanobacteria

424 €
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AS15 2894 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

319 €
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AS10 710A | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

319 €
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AS15 2855 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Chicken | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, L. esculentum, T. aestivum | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

319 €
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AS10 710 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, H. vulgare, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. tricornutum, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

319 €
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AS10 710-ALP | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

490 €
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AS10 710B | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

490 €
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AS10 710-DL488 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, H. vulgare, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm
490 €
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AS10 710-DL594 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, H. vulgare, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm
490 €
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AS10 710-DL650 | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardtii, H. vulgare, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm
490 €
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AS10 710-HRP | Clonality: Polyclonal | Host: Rabbit | Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. lycopersicum, V. faba, P. patens, S. europaea, Z. mays, Ch. reinhardtii | cellular [compartment marker] of nucleoplasm

490 €
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AS06 142-33  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A.thaliana, C. reinhardtii, C. vulgaris, C. sp. DT, E. crus-galli, F. arundinacea cv. Kord, H. pluvialis, H. spontaneum, H. vulgare, N. benthamiana, P. abies, P. banksiana, P. sativum, P. miliaceum, S. oleracea, S. tuberosum cultivar Taedong Valley, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and PCC6803, T. salsuginea,
T.aestivum

compartment marker of thylakoid lumen Replaced by AS05 092

AS08 305  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, S. bicolor, Z. mays

416 €
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AS06 142-23  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, Ch. reinhardtii, P. banksiana. , S.oleracea, T. aestivum

416 €
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AS10 700  | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, C. sativa, C. reinhardtii, H. spontaneum, F. pRatensis, G. max, G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, L. perenne, N. oceanica, N. tabacum, O. sativa, P. balsamifera, R. discolor, S. lycopersicum, Z. mays, T. salsuginea, red sulfur bacterium T. sp. Cad16 (isolated from Lake Cadagno)

319 €
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AS01 017  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Hen  |  Reactivity: [global antibody] for higher plants, algae, cyanobacteria  |  cellular [compartment marker] of plastid stroma

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416 €
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AS03 037 | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: global antibody  and compartment marker for higher plants, lichens, algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, diatoms 

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319 €
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AS03 037-DL488 | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: global antibody  and compartment marker for higher plants, lichens, algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, diatoms
473 €
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AS03 037-DL594 | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: global antibody  and compartment marker for higher plants, lichens, algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, diatoms
473 €
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AS03 037-DL650 | Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: global antibody  and compartment marker for higher plants, lichens, algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, diatoms
473 €
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AS15 2832A  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana

319 €
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AS10 680  |  Clonality: Polyclonal  |  Host: Rabbit  |  Reactivity: A. thaliana, C. reinhardii, E. gracilis, H. vulgare, O. sativa, Setaria italica, Zea mays

319 €
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AS21 4624 | Clonality: Monoclonal | Host: Mouse | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Eisenia, Nicotiana tabacum, Paramecium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human, mouse, pig, turkey
274 €
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AS21 4626 | Clonality: Monoclonal | Host: Mouse | Reactivity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Eisenia, Nicotiana tabacum, Paramecium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human, mouse, pig, turkey
274 €
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